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Carbondated dinosaur bones are less than 40, years old. Researchers have found Http carbon dating dinosaur bones reason for the puzzling survival of soft tissue and DNA fragments in dinosaur bones - the bones are younger than anyone ever guessed. Carbon C dating of multiple samples of bone from 8 dinosaurs found in Texas, Alaska, Colorado, and Montana revealed that they are only 22, to 39, years old.
Since dinosaurs are thought to be over 65 million years old, the news is stunning - and more than some could tolerate. After the AOGS-AGU conference in Singapore, the abstract was removed from the conference website by two chairmen because they could not accept the findings. Unwilling to challenge the data openly, they erased the report from public view without a word to the authors. When the authors inquired, they received this letter:.
They did not look at the data and Http carbon dating dinosaur bones never spoke with the researchers. They did not like the testso they censored them. Carbon is considered to be a highly reliable dating technique. It's accuracy has been verified by using C to date artifacts whose age is known historically. The fluctuation of the amount of C in the atmosphere over time adds a small uncertainty, but contamination by "modern carbon" such as decayed organic matter from soils poses a greater possibility for error. Thomas Seiler, a physicist from Germany, gave the presentation in Singapore.
He said that his team and the laboratories they employed took special care to avoid contamination. That included protecting the samples, avoiding cracked areas in the bones, and meticulous pre-cleaning of the samples with chemicals to remove possible contaminants. Knowing that small concentrations of collagen can attract contamination, they compared precision Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS tests of collagen and bioapatite hard carbonate bone mineral with conventional counting methods of large bone fragments from the same dinosaurs.
These, together with many other remarkable concordances between samples from different fossils, geographic regions and stratigraphic positions make random contamination as origin of the C unlikely". The theoretical limit for C dating isyears using AMS, but f or practical purposes it is 45, to 55, years, depending on the type of equipment.
The half-life of C is years. If dinosaur bones are 65 million years old, there should not be one atom of C left in them. Clearly something is wrong with the conventional wisdom about dinosaur bones, but it has been hard to reach the public with the information. Despite being simple test without any interpretation, they were not allowed to be presented in conference proceedings by the North American Paleontological Convention, the American Geophysical Union in andthe Geological Society of America in andand by the editors of various scientific journals.
On one occasion, they were allowed to display a poster. The information was finally published in an online journal on January 3,presenting the Carbon data from dinosaur bones alongside similar data from other material in the geologic column. Watch a video of what happens when you try to get members of the academic community involved. Dinosaur soft tissue. Many dinosaur bones are not petrified. Mary Schweitzer, paleobiology researcher and professor of biological sciences at North Carolina State University, surprised scientists in when she reported finding soft tissue in dinosaur bones.
She started a firestorm of controversy in and when she reported that she had sequenced proteins in dinosaur bone. Http carbon dating dinosaur bones charged that the findings were mistaken or that what she called soft tissue was really biofilm produced by bacteria that had entered from outside the bone.
Schweitzer answered the challenge by testing with antibodies. Her report in confirmed the presence of collagen and other proteins that bacteria do not make. Science, Vol. Ina Swedish team found soft tissue and biomolecules in the bones of another creature from the time of the dinosaurs, a Mosasaur, which was a giant lizard that swam in shallow ocean waters.
Microspectroscopic Evidence of Cretaceous Bone Proteins. A remarkable find was published in the journal Nature in April "we report the discovery of a monotaxic embryonic dinosaur bone bed in Lower Jurassic [ million year old] strata near Dawa, Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, China". The "bone bed is characterized by the presence of completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development".
This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteinswithin both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces. Our clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue, which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts. Huang, Eric M. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.
Nature, Vol. The discovery of original organics in an ichthyosaur supposedly million years old Early Jurassic leaves no doubt about the preservation of soft tissue and biomolecules. Researchers from North Carolina State University and Sweden's Lund University reported their findings in "Our analyses recovered still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin, which comprises morphologically distinct epidermal and dermal layers. These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy.
Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment. Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur. Microscopist Mark Armitage found sheets of soft tissue with bone cells osteocytes in a triceratops horn. This scanning electron microscope image from a paper published in Acto Histochemica in VolumeIssue 6, Julys shows "four osteocytes lying on fibrillar bone matrix.
Schweitzer wondered why such materials are preserved when all the models say they should be degraded. She coauthored a paper published in proposing Http carbon dating dinosaur bones there is a role for iron in preserving proteins in fossil tissues. However, iron is not always present in dinosaur soft tissue. Jasmina Wiemann coauthored a paper published in proposing a different solution to the problem: polymerization of proteins in oxidative settings.
A report in Science magazine explained more about these findings, showing that although the protein structure in selected dinosaur bones was changed, their organic material is apparently original. Yet the Http carbon dating dinosaur bones brown and black bones and residues constitute only a portion of the preserved organics in dinosaur bones, as described by Brian Thomas.
However it is preserved, if the original organic material in dinosaur bones is less than 55, years old it could reasonably be expected to contain measurable Carbon, and so it does. For years, until their access was blocked, the Paleochronology group had AMS laboratories conduct Carbon tests on dinosaur bones. The tests yielded dates in the range of 22, to 39, years before present. Dinosaur DNA fragments.
From the March news release "Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and North Carolina State University have found evidence of preserved fragments of proteins and apparent chromosomes within isolated cell-like microstructures in cartilage from a baby duckbilled dinosaur. The findings further support the idea that these original molecules can persist for tens of millions of years. This is ificant because collagen II is found only in cartilage, while collagen I dominates in bone. Schweitzer noted that "bacteria cannot produce collagen, which rules out contamination as the source of the molecules.
These chemical markers reacted with isolated cartilaginous cells, supporting the idea that some fragmentary DNA may remain within the cells. March 2, North Carolina State University news release. From the published paper "A nesting ground yielding dozens of disarticulated nestlings ased to the herbivorous duck-billed dinosaur Http carbon dating dinosaur bones stebingeri was discovered in the s in the Upper Cretaceous Campanian Two Medicine Formation of northern Montana. The "study specimen had not been ly embedded in resin.
Because extant primary cartilage does not usually express collagen I, no binding was expected, and none was observed in Collagen II is not produced by microbes; positing a microbial source is not parsimonious or congruent with the data. Therefore, positive PI staining cannot arise from contamination with living i. It is sequence dependent requiring at least three successive AT [Adenine-Thymine] base pairs as a binding site.
This not only supports that the compound within these cells is chemically consistent with DNA, but that material is double stranded, and of a minimum length of 6 base pairs. Even though it is clear that contamination does exist in fossil material and complicates identifications of original organic molecules, it can be ed for with proper controls. Contamination is not a plausible explanation in this case".
Horner, Brian K. Hall, Casey M. Holliday, Mary H. Advance access publication, 12 January Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage. National Science Review, 8 s.
Michael J. Benton, Professor of Vertebrate Palaeontology at the University of Bristol wrote an opinion piece on the discovery. He believes the DNA is from bacteria, ignoring the staining test that refutes a bacterial source by binding to DNA fragments in isolated cartilage cells, but he did say something useful: "Those studying what they believe to be ancient DNA are now careful to decontaminate their samples and work in antiseptic conditions.
But we now also know that DNA molecules break down very easily and will typically survive only a few years. Hundred-year-old samples of DNA from museum Http carbon dating dinosaur bones are massively fragmented and the breakdown of their molecular structure continues rapidly. DNA from fossils maybe 50, years old can be reconstructed from millions of short fragments. The oldest such samples areyears old - a long way from the 66 million year of the last dinosaurs. A study supports that conclusion, showing that, even under ideal conditions, all mitochondrial DNA bonds would be broken by 6.
These provide a baseline for predicting long-term DNA survival in bone.Http carbon dating dinosaur bones
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How Do Scientists Determine the Age of Dinosaur Bones?